The Fastest Ever Alphabetical Shorthand

Here, you will learn all about this wonderful new Shorthand system


The Fastest Ever Alphabetical Shorthand

Hi, I'm Janet.  I am a qualified Shorthand teacher.  This website is about Keyscript Shorthand, an alphabetical shorthand which I have created.  With Keyscript, there are no signs or symbols to learn as Keyscript uses only the ordinary lower case letters of the alphabet.  It is 2½ times faster to write than English longhand and can be either typed or handwritten.


I have another website, where there are two Keyscript Course manuals available for purchase: the “Lightning Guide to Keyscript”, for beginners, & the “Advanced Guide to Keyscript”.  These Courses are very comprehensive with theory, exercises, answers, and even a unique speed chart for speed building.  At the end of both manuals, there is an index of all the examples used.  


On this website here, I hope to expand on the information given in 



Comparison of Keyscript with other Alphabetical Shorthand Systems


I have often boasted that Keyscript is the fastest fully alphabetical shorthand. Well, let us see and compare.  The number of characters is given (in brackets) after each passage.


Dear Sir: In reply to your request of March 5, several of our sales catalogues are being shipped to you, under separate cover. Thank you for your interest in our organization. We appreciate your help. If we can be of further service, let us know. Sincerely, (212)


ds n rpli t y rqst o mr 5, svrl o r sals ctlgs r bg spd t u, u sprt cvr. t u f y ntrst n r org. w aprsat y hlp. f w c b o frtr srvc, lt u n. s (98)


drsr n ri tr rqz vmrc 5 sv v l sls kegs l bg ji tu xr wpt kq. hu qr nez nl lgc. wijt r lp. fwkb vfrh srvs csn. swrl (84)


The number of associates signed up for this program has considerably exceeded our expectations. Although this training was targeted for secretaries, associates with a wide variety of job titles have registered. (180)


H numbr o assts signd up fr ths pgram hs csidy excd ou xpechs.  Alt ths traig was targd fr secrs, assts wth a wde vary o jb tlts hv rgisd. (107)


h nbv jjts syx p qe iam s cwdi kse l kspks. uh e eng z trge q ykrs jjts c a wd vrt vjb tes v rjo. (70)



You will be pleased with the benefit you receive from using this easy system of typing and writing quickly. (89)


uwlb plzd wth th bnfit u rzv frm uzg ths ezy sstm f typg nd wrtg qkly. (54)


ulb iz cbnc ursv m ysg e j szm vtpg a rtg kkl.  (34)



Time Management
It has been said that each of us has the same amount of time available.  This is true, but some people get their work accomplished with time to spare while others do not. (151)


lm mgl 
l h b sd tl eC o us h t sam aml o lm av. ts s lru, bl sm pep gl te wk acmplSd w lm l spr wil otrs d nl. (76)


tm mnjx
tsn sd i c v s ssm mx vtm vli. es e e sm pi t o wo kiu c tm tspr wl cs dx. (56)


Pay the bill. Let me have a cheque for the bill. May I see the book? The new book is big. I can judge the value of the book if you fetch it. The book is new and I can get it for you. (139)


pa . bl\ ll me v a ck f . bl\ ma i se . bk? . nu bk s bg\ i k jj . vlu v . bk if u fc l\ . bk s nu & i k gl l f u\ (71)


pbl. cmv a ck qbl. my sbk, h nu bk s bg. yk jjvlu v bk fu fct. h bk s nu ayk tt qu. (59)


NOTE:  Speedwriting seems to be mainly a handwritten shorthand. The 't' is not crossed, hence its representation, here, by 'l'. Nor is the 'i' dotted, though of course when typing it, I had no choice.

T-SCRIPT (Keyboard Version)

This is a new approach to writing shorthand. A multi-level method designed for different user needs, but using a common core of abbreviation rules. One level for the professional shorthand writer and another, Alpha-level, for occasional note-taking at meetings and in classes. The Keyboard version can be typed on a standard computer keyboard. This is a simple and versatile method for the twenty-first century.     (348)

ts s a nu aprj t rtg zothd. a m-lvl mtd dsnd f dfrn usr nds, b usg a cmn co o abrvz rls. 1 lvl f e prfzl zothd rtr a antr, alflvl=, f oczl notkg a mtgs a n clss. e kebod= vez c b tpd on a stndrd cptr kebod. ts s a smpl a vestl mtd f e 21st sn.    (180)

es a nu ic trtg xjhx.  a cmlq mhd dsx q dqx yw nds e ysg a cn kr v bvc rls.  wn lq qifcl xjhx re anh lflq q kcl x tkg t ygs an ao.  h kxb vrc kb ti o a znepue kxb.  es a smi a vrstl mhd q21e sxr.    (138)


(Please note that the information given here relates to T-Script.)



Thank you also for the information which you have kindly given to my mother tonight. It will be better for mother, of course, if she does not go back to your place there until Saturday.  (151)


Gra v ai f l if qu v h gui da a ji mer cdex. T r e su f mer na x sh n go ba a vi ep iro bev D7.  (63)


hu uj qnfc cuv kxl g tm mh tnt.  tlb be q mh vkrs fjdsx g bk tr is o xl wtd.  (54)


NOTE:  Dutton SpeedWords works both as a shorthand system and as an international auxiliary language.



Man is, by nature, an active being.  He is made to labor.  His whole organization, mental and physical, is that of a hard-working being. Of his mental powers we have no conception, but as certain capacities of intellectual action.  His corporeal faculties are contrived for the same end, with astonishing variety of adaptation.  Who can look only at the muscles of the hand, and doubt that man was made to work? Who can be conscious of judgment, memory, and reflection, and doubt that man was made to act?   (414)


Man s, b ntr, a actv bng.  H s mde t labr.  S whole orgnztn,. mntl & phscl, s tt v a hrd-wrkng bng.  V s mntl powrs w h n cncptn- bt z crtn cpcts v intllctl actn.  S corprl faclts r cntrvd f e sme end, w astnshng vrty v adpttn.  W- c look only -t e muscles v e hnd, & dbt tl man w mde t wrk?  W- c b cnscious v jdgmnt, mmry, & rflctn, & dbt tt man w mde t act?  (267)


mn s b ne a av bg.  is y tli.  s l lgc mne a fsa s i v a xh wog bg.  vs mne prs wv nspc e s xsn kpsts v neal kjn.  s krprl fats leq qsm x c enjg vrt v dptc.  h k lk nl tmsls v hx a ew i mn z y two, h kbjj vjjx mmr a rqkc a ew i mn z y t a,   (161)



Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.
Even though we save money on food, we are constantly spending over our heads. 
Give everyone in the house a bag of candy, some cookies, and a small cup of ice cream.
Let's have dinner this evening at 6.00.    (220)

nou is the tim for al good men to kum to the ad ov thar kuntre.
even\ we sav mune on food, we ar konstantle spend- o our hedz.
giv e in the hous a bag of kande, sum kookez, an a smol kup of iskrem.
les hav diner this even- at 6.   (176)


w stm q u a mn tc td vo kxr.
vn hwsv mn o fd wlzxl spxg uql hds.
g qwn nhs a bg vknd sm kks a a sml kp v yjam.
csv dx e vnn t sks.    (92)



The ladder below shows the percentage saving in writing over longhand of the above alphabetical shorthand systems plus Keyscript, based on the samples. The percentage saving for Keyscript was calculated using all samples.


61 Keyscript         
58 Dutton        
54 Personal         
50 SuperWrite         
49 Speedwriting         
48 T-Script         
41 Easyscript          
39 Agiliwriting         
36 Brief Longhand         
20 Quickhand


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It's amazing! Thank you so much for all your hard work. You must be a true genius to have come up with this system! 
Ben Greer, Canada


As you can see, I am already trying your system and have high 
hopes of its application in my life! 
Leonard Vaughen, USA

I did manage to get through the first lesson and used the 
techniques when I went to a 3 day conference in Sydney during 
late July. It was invaluable. No way I could have taken sufficient 
notes the old way. 
Patrick Ernst, Australia

I find it an exciting journey and you have some very good ideas. 
John Barker, Germany


Thank you for the brilliant system,
Will Inglis, USA

I also feel now that, now that I see how amazingly your system 
mimics Pitman, that I could or should finally learn Pitman too. 
Perhaps at the same time.
Mikhail Kuznetsov, Russia

Thank you for your prompt attention to my purchase.
I've only had a chance to skim a chapter or two but I'm already 
greatly impressed with the elegance and brilliance of your system.
I'm excited!
Mo Abdelbaki, USA

THANKS Janet! Keyscript has really made taking notes in med school 
SO much easier ... OK, a LOT less painful.
-- Becky (USA)

I have been studying your system. The notes are beautifully prepared 
and it all seems something of a logical masterpiece. I have never effectively 
studied a language - studying Keyscript is making feel like applying myself 
one of these days - want to complete the Lightning Guide first though. 
C. Gray, London U.K.

As for the Keyscript method I found it to be very interesting and fast enough 
to compete with any of the symbol based shorthand systems in practice and 
that too within a very short period of time, comparatively. 
Adnan, Pakistan


By the way, out of all the Speedwriting courses, yours was the easiest to get information about and to order from.  

Fran G.  USA



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Origins of Keyscript

I have always been interested in reading text other than ordinary English. I have learnt several other languages, including Latin and Esperanto. I enjoyed reading literature written in Pitman Shorthand, that is, novels and short stories rather than just business matter. But there were so few of them, that I hated to finish one, knowing that there was so little more to read.


One of the reasons why there was not much literature in Shorthand was, I knew, because the many and varied symbols of Shorthand had either to be meticulously and expertly hand-written or printed using a specialised printing press. I wondered how this problem could be overcome. I visualised a computer programmer programming all the signs in Pitman Shorthand into a computer so that they could be typed on a keyboard.


What ultimately emerged, of course, was opposite to this, the shorthand adapting itself to suit a standard keyboard. It began more by accident than design when I started to write a kind of phonetic script for a shorthand course which I was writing.


With Keyscript, I no longer needed my computer programmer, since Keyscript can be typed using an ordinary keyboard. It can also be handwritten quickly because we already know the letters of the alphabet and write them automatically, and because 60% of the writing is saved with Keyscript. The name of the system was chosen to reflect its usefulness as either typed or written shorthand.



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Advantages of Keyscript Shorthand



Keyscript saves 60% or more of the writing over longhand.

Keyscript does not use capital letters.  There is never the need to use the shift key.

Keyscript spelling is phonetic and regular.  We do not have to worry about the vagaries of English spelling while taking dictation.

Keyscript uses regular phrasing, which reduces the number of spaces between words.

Keyscript uses less punctuation than longhand.



Keyscript saves more of the writing than the other alphabetical shorthands.


Keyscript uses only the lower case letters of the alphabet.  There is no need to use the Shift Key if typing.


Keyscript does not use any keyboard signs such as \ - & =.


Keyscript uses phrasing, or joining of words together, based on meaning. This makes Keyscript both quicker to write and easier to read. Most other alpha systems do not use phrasing at all.


In Keyscript, we normally write the whole word (in abbreviated form, according to the rules) compared with some systems which leave out random letters.  The spelling of a word is fixed in Keyscript.  These characteristics also greatly aid reading.


There is no limit on the number of words which can be abbreviated, as in some systems.


Keyscript is based on the English language (compared with Dutton Speedwords).


Keyscript uses limited punctuation, only full stop (or period) . & comma , which is used in place of a question mark.  



Keyscript does not need any special type of writing instrument or even lined paper.


Keyscript can also be typed on a keyboard.


There are no symbols or modified forms of letters to learn.  Almost everyone already knows how to write the letters of the English alphabet.


There is no position writing, thick and thin letters, or different size letters.


Because ordinary lower case letters always make good joins with each other, there is no need to write down the page or cope with awkward joinings.  



Since ordinary letters are used in Keyscript, they are easier to read than written strokes which may not always be the right length, have the required amount of shading (thinness or thickness) or correct angle of slope.


In Keyscript, words are not joined together just because they are easy to join or left unjoined because they are hard to join, as in Pitman. There is no need to modify letters to make them join better.  So joining can be freed up to echo the natural rhythm of the English language, hence to show meaning.


Keyscript takes all the fussy bits out of Pitman Shorthand and still leaves it readable.  For example, the endings of different words which in Pitman would all be written slightly differently, employing either thick or thin strokes, ordinary length or halved strokes and different types of hooks can all be shown with one letter, provided that the rules of Keyscript are observed.


Keyscript regularises Pitman.  No spelling is randomly modified just to make it shorter.  Instead, the spelling conforms to the rules of Keyscript, which are themselves all designed to make words as short and as readable as possible.  

(Please note that I respectfully acknowledge the inventors, their creative work, insight and expertise which has gone into producing all systems of shorthand and speedwriting.  I do not intend to denigrate any system.)



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How does Keyscript work?

Keyscript employs only the ordinary lower case letters of the alphabet.  The letters are not shortened or modified in any way.


Basically, the vowels in a word are omitted, leaving only the consonants.


The consonants are written phonetically, e.g. 'ph' is written as 'f'.  All consonant sounds are written with one letter:  'ch', 'sh' & 'th' are 'c', 'j' & 'h' respectively.


The vowels, and the least common English consonants in the alphabet are used as 'indicators'.  An indicator shows a combination of consonants which occur frequently in English.  For example, in the word 'people', 'pl' is represented by the vowel 'i'.  So 'people' becomes 'pi'.  Combinations of various consonants with 't' 'd' 'l' 'r' & 's' are shown using indicators.


Common prefixes and suffixes are represented by one letter, e.g. 'self-' or '-self' is 's'.


There is a list of about 80 very common words that are written somewhat outside the rules of Keyscript so that they may:

1. be written with only one letter and

2. not be able to be confused with each other in context, for example, 'he' is 'i' to distinguish it from 'they' which is 'h'.


Some other common words are contracted but are spelled with more than one letter, e.g. 'important' is 'mp'.


Where the spelling of two words in Keyscript would be the same, and they could be mistaken in context, one of these is written not quite according to rule, for example, 'amuse' is written as 'mus' to distinguish it from 'amaze', which is 'ms'.

Keyscript joins words together according to definite rules based on the natural flow of the English language, so 'I am' is 'ym'.



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700 Common Words Exercises


("The 700 common words recur with 80% frequency in all continuous English"


This edition of 700 Common Word Exercises has no date, but I can safely say it was written around the late 1930s.  The content is interesting and well written and it has already proved to me to be excellent practice for Keyscript revision and consolidation.  Some old fashioned sexist language will undoubtedly grate with many people, but just remember that 'man' embraces woman.  The number in (brackets) is, of course, the number of characters in the section (passage).  


I am dividing each passage into quarters, with the bolded capitalised word denoting the end of a quarter.  The word that is also underlined is halfway through the passage.  This will enable the passage for dictation, using the unique Speed Chart in the ‘Advanced Guide to Keyscript’.  This Speed Chart enables passages of up to 200 words to be dictated at 20 - 150 words per minute in 10 wpm intervals.




Exercise No. 1

From the lives of great men we learn many things, much that IS of value to us in our own lives.  Not the least important THING, perhaps, which the life of almost any great man teaches US is that we have time to do those things which we most want to do.  52 words  (200)


mlvs vat mn wlrn mm ns y is vvlu ts nln lvs.  xlj mp n ips clf v umz n at mn tcss s iwv tm td a ns cw mz wx td. (78)


As young people we talk lightly of what we would do if ONLY we had the time; as old people we look back UPON lost opportunities and wish that we had had the time to FOLLOW this course of action, that line of training.  44 words  (174)


s yn pi wtk cl vo wod f nl wdtm s uc pi wlk bk pn lz xpts a j iwddtm tfll e krs v kjn i ln veng. (68)


But again and again, as we read the stories of the lives of THOSE who have done great things, of those whose names will be FOREVER remembered, the knowledge is forced upon us that our TROUBLE is not that we have too little time but that we have too little desire.    51 words  (213)


e ggn swrdzrs v lvs va hvdn at ns va z nms lb qq rmmi h nlj s frz pns i l ei sx iwv t ll tm e iwv t ll dsr. (75)


Our desire to move in a certain direction is not strong enough to influence US to take the necessary steps, to use for that purpose the hours, which ARE being spent in other and possibly less profitable ways.  If the desire to ACT and the will to work are there, then we shall find both the time and the opportunity.  60 words (256)


l dsr tmv n a xsn drkc sx on nf t nqws ttknor zps tys qi prps h ls cl bg spx n c a ps ls ifti ws.  fdsr t a awl two l o hn wj fx bhtm a xpt.  (98)


These thoughts come to the mind upon reading a recently published book in which the writer tells in outline the story of the lives of 15 great MEN.  From the many remarkable men who have lived during the past five hundred years the writer has taken those men who, by their thought and by their labor, were able to DISCOVER a great principle, some deep truth about the laws of nature which had not before been known—men who in this way added greatly to the knowledge and LEARNING of the world and so took all men one big step forward in the long march towards a better understanding of the forces which govern our world.  116 words  (504)


i ts c t mx pn rdg a rsxl pbu bk ncre tls n tln h zr v lvs v15 at mn.  mmm rmr mn hv lq drpz fv hne rs h re s tkn a mn h bo t a bo li r i dskq a at iwi sm dp eh iwls vne cdx bf bn nn mn h ne w e atl t nlj a lrng v wcr a j tk u mn wn bg zp fro nln mrc ot a be xzxg v fro cgv l wcr.  (190)


It is not possible to read this book—or indeed any book of THIS nature—without feeling an increased respect for the power of MAN'S mind, an increased respect for his learning, for his CONTINUED attempts to find the truth even when faced with great difficulties.  46 words  (218)


tsx ps trd e bk r ne n bk ve ne we flg a nkz rsp qpr vmw mx a nkz rsp qs lrng qstnd tys tfxeh vn c fz c at dfs.  (79)


The life of each of these men, it need hardly be said, differs in detail.  Some of them showed themselves even AS children to have reasoning powers beyond what we regard as usual; others were just simple children SHOWING no special powers of any kind during their early years.  Some were “one idea” men, working only in THEIR special field; others developed remarkable minds and became better than most men in most fields of learning.  75 words  (358)


h lf v c vi mn t nd xhl b sd dqs n dtl.  smvh jdho vn s clen hv rsng prs byxo wrxg s zu cs r jz smi clen jg n spu prs v n kx dro rll rs.  sm r wn yd mn wog nl no spu cf cs dvli rmri my a bkm ben mz mn n mz of vlrng.  (150)


But common to them all was the power to work for very long hours, hours spent in deep thought, IN careful planning, in the perfecting of ideas, and the putting of results together piece by PIECE to make the whole—a whole which was to surprise the world.  Most of them lived to an old AGE, few dying before reaching 70 years of age and several living to be over 80.  71 words  (294)


e cn th u zpr two q v ln ls ls spx n dp t n krf ing nprfag v yds apg vros tgh pps tmkl.  a l cz tsiswcr.  mz vh lq t a uc j fu dg bf rcg 70 rs v j a sv lvg tb uq 80.  (113)


Naturally, the thought must come: “Was there any connection between these two facts?  Did these men work beyond the POWERS of common people because they were strong in body beyond the common person?  Or did they owe their LONG lives to the fact that they lived principally for their ideas, paying little attention to the many PLEASURES which interest the masses, caring little for food and drink or for the company of other men and women?”   76 words  (362)


nel h t mz c zo nkc iwn i t fas,  e i mn wo byxprs vcn pi kshr on n bd byxcn prs,  r eh u o ln lvs t fa ihlq iwi qo yds pg ll tnc t mm ius cnezmo krg ll q fd a enk r q pn v c mn a wmn,  (126)


It is difficult to attempt an answer.  We cannot be certain.  But long as was the life of the man HIMSELF, it was short when measured by the life of his work.  That work has influenced the thoughts and the actions of many MEN for many years.  It will continue to influence man’s thought and man’s action as long as man is A thinking being, using the knowledge of the past to increase in the present his control over natural forces.  81 words  (347)


ts dfa t ty a nw.  wkxb xsn.  e ln s zlf v mn is tz xj c mu blf vs wo.  i wo s nqyts a kjw vmm mn q mm rs.  tltnu t nqw mw t a mw kjn slns mn s a hg bg ysgnlj v pz t nks nisx s cel uq nel fro.  (131)



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Exercise No. 2

The life story of the great man must end on the same note as the life story of the least important of men.  We must come in our reading to the point where the great MAN gives up his work, leaving it to others to carry on what he has begun.  His life with all its wonderful interest is past, and we who read are LEFT with the memory of his life and with the results of his work.  We know that this must be so, but we do not always like a thing better because we know that it is CERTAINLY waiting for us, and it is not surprising to find that there are people who can take no pleasure in this form of reading because they know from the outset what the end must be.  137 words  (523)


h lf zr v at mn mz x osm x slf zr v lj mp vmn.  wmz c nl rdg t px wrat mn gs p s wo lvgt t cs tkr o o is bgn.  s lf c u ts wnh nez s pz a w hrd l lc cmmr vs lf a cros vs wo.  wn iemzb j e wdx uws lk a n be kswn its xsnl og qs atsx sisg tfx iol pi hk tk n iu nef vrdg kshn mtst ox mzb.  (195)

It is, however, no more profitable to run away, to turn our face from facts, in reading than it IS in life itself, and it is better to take the wider view and to read for the pleasure and the profit to be FOUND in the consideration of the whole life, with its many difficulties and its many successes.  In this way we can FIND both comfort and help for ourselves, whose lives may seem without set purpose, to have little value.  82 words  (345)


ts wq n mr ifti trn y ttrn l fs m fas n rdg hnts n lf ts ats be ttkwh vu a trd qiu aift tb fx n wdc vl lf cts mm dfs ats mm skos.  ne w wk fx bhq a lp qlo z lvs m sm we st prps hv ll vlu.  (131)


We discover perhaps that some person whose name has been to us like a great white light, far away, beyond our touch—that person met in his early days with many of the SAME difficulties which we are facing now, that he, like us, had no special advantages, no clearly marked course to follow; like us he had to make his own way, step by step, LEARNING as he went.  We find, for example, that one man who became world known began his working life as a teacher, helping his brother in a small country SCHOOL.  Another worked on a farm, and a third made his first special observation while holding a small and not important position on a ship, which was making its way to the South Seas.  129 words  (553)


wdskq ips i sm prs z nm sn ts lk a at oy c fr y byxl tc i prs y ns rll ds c mm v sm dfs cwl fsg w ii lks d n spu dvs n arl mra krs tfll lks id tmk sn w zzp lrng siwx.  wfx qgs i wn mn hbkm wcr nn bgn s wog lf s a tu lpg s ih n a sml kxr sa.  nh wo o a frm a a xh y s z spu bwvc wl chg a sml a x mp psc o a jp cz mkg ts w t sh ss.  (223)


But these men did not wait for opportunity to come to them; they took immediate advantage of their conditions to make their own opportunity.  In the BOOK which we have especially in mind we find that in most cases the man’s work was valued during his lifetime.  But the WORLD is not always ready to take new ideas warmly to its heart.  In every age there are those who feel certain that there IS nothing left for man to discover; there are others who see in the new idea a danger to their own special interests.  96 words  (413)


e i mn ex o q xpt tc th htk mdt dv vo cdo tmk on xpt.  nbk cwv jpu n mx wfx i n mz ko h mw wo z vlud dro lcm.  ewcr sx uws rd ttk nu yds wrml t ts xh.  n q j ol a hfl xsn ios nhn lc q mn tdskq  ol cs hs nnu yd a dnu ton spu nee.  (157)


It is not always easy to look at something new with clear eyes, to judge truly the value either of our own work or the work of others.  We find ourselves THINKING that because a thing has always been done in such and such a way in the past then that must be the best possible way for it to be done, or because a certain thing has not been done BEFORE then it should not be done now.  We have to keep a careful watch upon ourselves in this respect, and try to keep an open mind.  If we try new methods in our OWN work we shall sometimes be wrong, possibly we shall often be wrong, but sometimes we shall meet with success which makes worth while all our earlier labours.  133 words  (534)


tsx uws j tlk t smn nu c ar yj tjj el h vlu yhr v ln wo rwo v cs.  wfxlo hg i ks a n s uwsn dn n ssc a w npz hn imzbbz ps w qt tb dn r ks a xsn n sxn dn bf hn tixb dn w.  wv tkp a krf wc pnlo ne rsp a e tkp a pn mx.  fwe nu mhds nln wo wj syms b rn ps wj fn b rn e syms wj y c sko cmks wrh wl u l rllr lis.  (209)


Probably no more than one or two men out of all the millions living today can hope to do something so important that it will influence world THOUGHT and world action throughout the ages to come, but the methods which have served the great men of any age and helped them in their great work have VALUE for us today in our less important work.  By marking the course taken by those who have been successful in their special fields we CAN learn better how to deal with our own situation, our own difficulties, in the field of thought and of action in which we are ourselves most interested. 109 words  (478)


ib n mrn wnt mn tv umlw lvg td k up td smn j mp itl nqw wcr t a wcr kjn etjs tc emhds cv srqat mn v n j a lih no at wo v vlu qs td nl ls mp wo.  b mrkgkrs tkn ba hvn skof no spu of wk lrn be w tdl cln stc ln dfs ncf vt av kjn nc wl lo mz nese. (172)



ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ßß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ßß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß


Exercise No. 3

Time plays an important part in every action of every person throughout the day, yet Time is something about which we know VERY little and about which we understand even less.  If, in our desire to understand a little better the real MEANING of Time, we read a modern book on the subject, it is probably the experience of many of us that we understand IT even less at the end of our reading than at the beginning—that we know, indeed, very little about the world in which we live.  91 words  (390)


tm is a mp xp n q kjn v q prs etd o tm s smn iwc wn v ll aiwc wxzx vn ls.  f nl dsr t xzx a ll be h rl mng vtm wrd a mhn bk osb ts ibksprw vmm v s iwxzxt vn ls tx v l rdg hn t gn iwn ne v ll iwwcr nc wlv.  (141)


We read, for example, that everything that has been still is, that everything which is to come in the future already exists.  We read that the events, which make up life, are like the STATIONS along the railway line.  A train is running along that line towards one of these stations.  It reaches the station, it perhaps waits there for a very little while, and THEN it passes on, leaving the station behind it.  But the station existed before the train reached it and it continues to exist after the train has left it.  In the same way, it is SAID, the things which happen in our life are there all the time, waiting for us to reach them.  We reach them and experience them and pass on, leaving them behind us.  132 words  (573)


wrd qgs i qn isn zl s i qn cs tc nfue urd gse.  wrd ivy cmk p lf l lkzo lnrlw ln.  a en s rng ln i ln ot wnvi zo.  trcszc t ips os o q a v ll wl a hn tpo o lvgzc bhxt.  ezc goe bfen rut attns t got feen s lct.  nsm w ts sd h ns chpn nl lf l o utm og qs trch.  wrch aksprwh a ps o lvgh bhxs.  (204)


According to the writers of these modern books, these events existed before we knew of them and will continue to exist when we OURSELVES are no more.  They will exist, in fact, for as long as anything as we understand it exists.  We read these STATEMENTS and think carefully about them, and at first it seems that the statements cannot be true, that we cannot seriously be expected to believe THEM.  Then, perhaps, we remember some of the things we were told as children and which we have always believed to be true.  93 words    (421)


xkres vi mhn bks i vy goe bfwnu vh a ltnu t got cw lo l nmr.  hl got nfa q slns nn swxzxt gse.  wrd i zty a h krf iwh atz tsms izty kxb e iwkx srjl b ksp tblh.  hn ips wrmb smv ns wr ct s clen a cwv uws bl tb e.  (152)


As children we learned that many of the little points of light which appeared above us at night are REALLY great bodies, which are millions of miles away from the earth.  Light, we were told, moves at the RATE of about 186,000 miles a second, but so far distant are these bodies from us that the LIGHT which we see coming from them is the light which left them thousands, and in some cases millions, of years ago.  78 words  (335)


s clen wlrx i mm v ll py vc cxp bvs t xy l rl at bds cl mlw vmls y mrh.  c wr ct mvs trt v iw 186h mls a skx e j fr dzx li bds ms ic cws cg mh sc clch hsy an sm ko mlw vrs g.  (121)


Because of this fact, we learned, if we could discover some method by which our eyes could see what was happening ON one of these distant bodies, we should see not what is happening today but what was happening ages and ages ago.  If PEOPLE something like ourselves lived on those little points of light and if they could see what was happening on our earth, they, looking at US today, would see not what is happening now but what happened thousands or millions of years ago, according to the distance they are away.  94 words  (422)


ks ve fa wlrx fwa dskq sm mhd bc l yj a s oz hpng o wn vi dzx bds wi s x os hpng td e oz hpng jjs g.  f pi smn lklo lq oa ll py vc afhas oz hpng ol rh h lkg ts td o s x os hpng w e o hpx hsy r mlw vrs g xkdzw hl y.  (148)


But even when we remember these facts it is for most of us difficult to get more than the SMALLEST suggestion of an idea of what is meant when we are told that everything that has been still is and ALWAYS will be.  It is difficult to believe that there will always be somewhere the picture of you as you SIT reading these words.  If we think of sound it helps us to understand this point a little better.  79 words  (324)


e vn cwrmb i fas ts q mz v s dfa tt mrnsmlz sjzn v a yd vos mx cwl ct i qn isn zl s auws lb.  ts dfa tbl iol uwsb smwr h pke vu sust rdg i ow. fwh vsx tlpss t xzx e px a ll be.  (125)


We see a movement very much more quickly than we hear the sound resulting from that movement, for sound comes to us at only 1,100 feet A second as against the 186,000 miles a second of light.  Let us say that I live half a mile from a big manufacturing plant, so that the SOUNDS which come to me from the plant reach me about two and a half seconds after the sounds were in fact made.  Let us say also that you live another half A mile down the road, away from the plant.  You would hear the same sounds two and a half seconds after I heard them, that is five seconds after they were made.  118 words  (469)


ws a mvx vy mr kkl hnwrsx rqsg mi mvx q sx cs t s t nl 11n q a skx s gy186 mls a skx vc.  cs z iylv hf a ml m a bg mnfg ix jisy cc tm mix rcm iw t a a hf sky fesy r nfa y.  cs z uj iulv nh hf a ml dnrd y mix.  uo rsm sy t a a hf sky feyxhh is fv sky fehr y.  (177)



ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ßß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ßß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß


Exercise No. 4

You would therefore make the statement that a certain sound took place at, say, five seconds past the hour, I would say that it happened at ABOUT two or three seconds past the hour, while the people at the works would say that it took place just at the hour.  So that when we say that a certain THING happened at a certain time we really mean that it happened at that time in relation to our own position at that moment. The RELATION of time to distance and the relation of immediate time to time as a whole are subjects in which people grow more and more interested.  109 words  (458)


uo ofr mkztx i a xsn sx tk is t z fv sky pzl yo z ithpx t iw t r e sky pzl wlpi twos o z ittk is jz tl.  j i cwz i a xsn n hpx t a xsn tm w rl mn ithpx ti tm n rlc t ln psc ti mmx.  h rlc vtm tdzw arlc v mdt tm ttm s a l l sbs nc pi au mmr nese.  (168)


Recently two plays have been written round the idea that everything that has happened in the past is still in existence, the POINT made by the plays being that a person who has a certain special sense highly developed can go back into the PAST and experience old and past events.  But interesting as these ideas may be, there is another and much more USUAL point of view from which to consider time.  For all the general purposes of everyday life we all understand time quite well.  87 words  (393)


rsxl t is vn xn rxyd i qn is hpx npz s zl n gotw h px y bis bg i a prs hs a xsn spu sw hyl dvli k g bk ntpz aksprw uc a pz vy.  e nezg s i yds mb os nh a ymr zu px vvu mc tcwd tm.  q ujn prpo v qd lf w u xzx tm k wl.  (148)


We know that each day is made up of 24 hours, that there are never 23 hours to the day and never 25.  We know that the little HANDS marking the passing of the minutes and hours move on and on at their even rate, and that although they work in our SERVICE, they work without any regard to our personal and special interests.  They will work no more quickly when life is taking US towards some especially pleasing event, and they will not lessen their rate when we are moving towards something less pleasing.  95 words  (410)


wn i c d s y p v24 ls iol nq 23 ls t d a nq 25.  wn ill hy mrkgpsg v mnts als mv o ao to vn rt a i uhhwo nl srvs hwo we n rxg t l prs a spu nee.  hl wo nmr kkl c lf s tkgs ot sm jpu isg vx a hlx lsn o rt cwl mvg ot smn ls isg.  (155)


We know that time influences us in the doing of every piece of work, for all work, to have its highest value, has to be “DONE to time.” The Chief who calls the members of the Board together for a certain time must be ready when the Board meets, with the FACTS, figures, or questions, which he wishes to put to the members.  He depends not only upon his own work in this connection but upon the WORK of all directly working with him, from the most experienced man in his employ to the most recent of the office-boys.  99 words  (416)


wn i tm nqas ndg v q ps vwo q u wo hv ts hyz vlu s tb dn ttm.  h cf hklsmbs v xb tgh q a xsn tm mzb rd cxb ys cfas fgs r kzw cijs tp t mbs. idpy x nl pnsn wo nekc e pnwo v u dral wog ci mmz kspry mn ns mi t mz rsx vfs bs.  (156)


The motor manufacturer must so organize the year’s work of all his men that he not only supplies the day-to-day demand of the public for his PRODUCT but also has his new goods quite ready for the market at the expected time.  The manufacturer, whatever his product may be, must supply present DEMAND and at the same time organize future work.  Goods made for shipment overseas must be ready for shipment by the date on which the ship is leaving the COUNTRY.  The kind of market in which we are interested makes little difference—goods must be put on the market when the market is ready to receive them.  109 words  (492)


h me mnfr mz j lgnrs wo v u s mn ii x nl sisd td dmx v pb qs ida e uj s s nu as k rd qmra tksp tm.  h mnfr oq s ida mb mz si isx dmx atsym lgn fue wo.  as y q jpx uss mzb rd q jpx bdt ocjp s lvgkxr.  h kx vmra nc wl nese mks ll dqw  as mzb p omra cmra s rd trsvh.  (184)


But the principal difficulty of all planning comes from the fact that we cannot see times.  We have perhaps five months in which to do a piece of WORK; there seems to be no need for an immediate start and the papers in connection with it are put on one side.  When the papers again see the light of DAY we find possibly that we need information from another person.  But to the second man this piece of work is something just received, and he in HIS turn “sits on it” for a little while, only to find when he looks seriously at the work that it requires the attention of a third party.  114 words  (469)


eiwi df v u ing cs mfa iwkx s tms.  wv ips fvhs nc td a ps vwo  osms tb n nd q a mdt xz apps nkc ct l p o wn sd.  cpps gn sc vd wfx ps iwnd nfc m nh prs.  e t skx mn e ps vwo s smn jz rsq a i ns trn sts ot q a ll wl nl tfx cilks srjl two it rqrstnc v a xh prt.  (180)


And valuable days pass until we find that the work is either put through to time as a result of much work and RUNNING about on the part of everyone interested or it is not put through, with resulting loss of money and good WILL.  Even when man has done his best, Nature sometimes lets us down, and weather conditions hold up trains, AIRPLANES, and ships, and the “perfect” piece of planning works out less perfectly than we had hoped and expected.  82 words (365)


a vlui ds ps xlwfx iwo s yhr p e ttm qs vy wo a rng iw oxpv qwn nese r tsx p e c rqsg ls vmn a a wl.  vn c mn s dn s bz ne syms css dn a whdo ch p ew riw a jps aprfa ps ving wos t ls prfal hnwd hi aksp.  (142)



ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ßß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ßß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß


Exercise No. 5

While we rest peacefully in our beds at night, great machines are at work turning out thousands and sometimes millions of copies of our MORNING newspapers, at the rate of four hundred or more copies a minute.  The late hours of the night and the early hours of the morning are times of HARD work for most of those who have any connection with the first general distribution of newspapers.  But so regularly does the paper appear on the streets that we usually buy it and read IT through as a matter of course, giving little or no thought to the means used to bring it to us, to the great care and planning and organization behind its daily sale.  120 words  (524)


wlwrz psf nl is t xy at mjw l t wo trng t hsy a syms mlw vkps v l mrnn nspps trt vfr hne r mr kps a mnt.  h lt ls v xy a rll ls v mrnn l tms vxh wo q mz va hv nkc cz jn dobc vnspps.  e j rg dspp pr oyts iw zu bt a rdt e smekrs gg ll r n t t mw yz tint t s t at kr a ing algc bhxts dl sl.  (200)


Success in the newspaper world depends in very large measure upon being “on time.”  News, which is late, is generally news which has lost its value.  Papers which ARE late are generally papers which will not be bought.  All good newspaper men will tell us that in their trade there is little truth in the old saying “Better late than never.”  All day LONG news and general information reaches the newspaper office.  It is sent into the office by road and by railway, by sea and by air, by wire and by hand.  Thousands of ADVERTISEMENTS, and hundreds of letters from readers, are received daily, and in addition there are the pictures, which are sent in with the hope that they will appear next day on the “picture” page of the paper.  132 words  (596)


sko nnspp wcr dpy n v lrj mu pn bg o tm.  nus cs lt s jn nus cs lz ts vlu.  pps cl lt l jn pps clxb bt.  u a nspp mn l tls i no ed os ll eh nuc zg be lt hn nq.  u d ln nus a jn nfc rcsnspp fs.  ts sx ntfs b rd a b rlw b s a b r b wr a b hx.  hsy v dvts a hnes vles m rhs l rsq dl an dc olpkes cl sx n cup ihl pr nz d opke pj v pp.  (224)


Some of the news received is of world-wide importance; some of it has very little value, but all this mass of “copy” must be read through by trained men who can IMMEDIATELY judge its worth, and either put it on one side or give it a place in the paper according to its special value or purpose.  Headlines must be CONSIDERERED—the size and the position on the page of the principal and of the secondary headlines. There is the last-minute work—the reports brought in, perhaps, by the men sent OUT to “cover” the big stories of the day: the write-up of a new play put on that evening; the story of a fire which breaks out just before the paper is ready for the machines.  127 words  (542)


smv nus rsq s vwcr wd mp smv t s v ll vlu e u e ms vkp mzb rd e b ex mn hk mdtl jj ts wrh ayhr pt o wn sd r gt a is npp xk ts spu vlu r prps.  hdlw mzbyd h ss apsc opj v iwi a v skxr hdlw.  oslz mnt wo h rop it n ips bmn sx t tkqbg zrs v d h rt p v a nu i p o i vnn h zr v a fr ciks t jz bfpp s rd qmjw.  (207)


And what of the life of the newspapermen who are sent out to cover the big stories, the important events, the last-minute happenings? We LIKE to think of them as leading lives very full of interest; we picture them living near to the heart of history, often knowing of some WORLD-important fact long before it is made known to the public.  In the case of newspaper writers who are sent out to all parts of the WORLD to report the news of the moment, we may picture them as not only near to the heart of history but even at times helping to make history.  105 words  (448)


a o v lf v nsppmn hl sx t tkqbg zrs h mp vy h lz mnt hpngs,  wlk th vh s ldg lvs v flv nez wpkeh lvg nr t xh vhwt fn ng vsm wcr mp fa ln bfts y nn t pb.  nks vnspp res hl sx t t u op v wcr trxpnus v mmx wm pkeh s x nl nr t xh vhwt e vn t tms lpg tmk hwt.  (178)


But the “old hands” at the work tell us that this picture of their lives exists only in the minds of those who have had no CONNECTION with the newspaper world.  The truth, they say, is very different.  While sometimes they are put on to a story which holds for THEM a personal interest, while always it is necessary for them to work quickly and with care, they are working often UNDER difficult conditions, and generally without coming into direct touch with the great happenings or the great men of the world.  92 words  (417)


euc hy two tls i e pke vo lvs gse nl nmy va hvd nkc cnspp wcr.  h eh hz s v dqx.  wl syms hl p o t a zr coh qh a prs nez wl uws ts nor qh two kkl a c kr hl wog fn xr dfado a jn we cg nt dra tc cat hpngs rat mn v wcr.  (151)









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